Nature does not have bad weather — anyone should be accepted. And not only to accept but also to fix, measure, and analyze. Taking into account the fact that my recent article about optical precipitation measurements was quite warmly received by the community, I continue to tell about interesting devices for meteorological measurements, which are based on non — standard principles for registering the main meteorological quantities-temperature, humidity, wind speed, and direction. In this article, we will talk about ultrasonic meteorological measurements, and with the help of which devices they are recorded.
Where you can use a smart weather station?
The main task of modern meteorological equipment is to avoid any moving elements as much as possible, but at the same time maintain the accuracy and quality of meteorological observations. The solution to this problem is the use of ultrasonic measurements of temperature and wind speed. At the same time, remarkable physical laws are used, since the speed of sound is different for different environments in which this sound propagates. There is a dependence of the speed of sound on temperature, pressure, and, most importantly, on the wind speed in the atmosphere in which the sound propagates. As you know, the speed of sound in the air is quite decent and is about 300 m/s at a temperature of -50 gr. S. But at a temperature of +50 gr. the speed of sound is already 20 percent higher.
Seven years ago, a wonderful user article was published on the Reddit resource, in which he used a simple example of ultrasonic measurements to accurately measure the temperature at home. It is on this principle that the most modern ultrasonic weather stations work, however, if the sound propagates in the presence of wind, the measurements become more difficult. The reason for this is the Doppler effect, which in this case manifests itself as an increase in the speed of sound, if the sound propagates in the conditions of motion of the medium, i.e. in the presence of wind. The sound travels faster in the wind, slower against the wind. It is the value of the wind speed. Thus, by installing the sound emitter at some distance from the receiving device (microphone or similar emitter, but already operating in the sound wave reception mode), it is possible to measure wind speed and temperature. At the same time, a certain mathematical problem is solved, because the speed of sound depends on the temperature, and at the same time, the wind introduces its own distortions.
This means that smart system weather monitoring technologies can be used both in industrial production, where each of the indicators is important and at home (there are cases of developing a personal weather station for personal purposes). But basically, this method of obtaining ultra-clear data is in demand for responsible operation and monitoring of weather conditions for the following purposes:
- professional weather station;
- control of production at nuclear power plants and energy facilities;
- environmental control at chemical plants;
- calculation of the consequences of accidents and man-made disasters;
- organization of work on high-rise objects;
- provision of sports competitions;
- remote monitoring and activity planning;
- control of transport overpasses.
For greater mobility, there are wireless weather stations that help in the field of logistics for long trips or special tourism. Technology has moved much further than you thought. But just less than a century ago, entire complexes were built with high-precision (at that time) devices. It occupied huge territories.
What are the types of weather stations?
Before choosing a weather station, you need to think in advance and decide which model you need. Next, it will remain to go through the key criteria and choose the best option for yourself.
In general, they can be divided into 2 large groups: mechanical and electronic. Each of them has its own characteristics that must be taken into account when choosing.
Mechanical (or analog) outdoor weather stations are delivered in a stylish wooden case using metal. This makes them a great addition to the interior, as well as a chic gift. All the necessary devices are hidden inside the case: a thermometer (liquid or mechanical); a hygrometer; a barometer.
Mechanical weather stations are only suitable for monitoring data indoors. To track the street temperature, they need to be hung out on the window, which, of course, no one will do. But such models are distinguished by an affordable price, which is what they bribe.
As for the digital weather station, they are a modern digital device with various sensors that measure temperature, humidity, and other indicators. For full functionality, it is recommended to have a remote outdoor sensor and even there are weather stations with cameras. So the device will monitor temperature indicators not only in the room but also outside the window. (weather college station)
Ultrasonic weather stations are the standard of meteorological measurements all over the world. Devices of this class are produced by many foreign companies. As a rule, the characteristics of such devices allow you to cover all the necessary ranges of meteorological observations, such as air temperature, horizontal wind speed, and direction, vertical wind speed, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure.
Development of personal weather station
These are really very reliable and modern devices that are devoid of the disadvantages of mechanical thermal anemometers. Of course, such devices have some disadvantages, they are difficult to manufacture and calibrate, so you need to use a lot of additional equipment to configure them. The devices attract birds that like to sit on them and not only sit on them) Otherwise, ultrasonic weather stations are an ideal option in measuring the main meteorological characteristics. Many people think that meteorologists only measure temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind characteristics. Indeed, these are the main characteristics, from which a lot of other, additional ones are calculated.